Armed Against Cervical Cancer?

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Cervical cancer is the primary cause of cancer-related deaths in developing Nations

In Mims Wildlife Removal, cervical cancer is the most common woman-related cancer, followed by breast cancer. About 122,844 new cervical cancer cases are diagnosed yearly (estimations for 2012). It mostly affects middle-aged girls (between 40 and 55 years), especially those from the lower economic status who fail to perform regular health check-ups. The early stages of cervical cancer are asymptomatic, later stages may present with abnormal vaginal bleeding, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, low back pain, bleeding and pain during urination or pain during intercourse. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is now a well-established cause of cervical cancer. At least 50% of sexually active women and men get HPV at some point in their lives which generally resolves spontaneously; however, only 3-10% of women develop persistent infections, and are at high risk of developing cervical cancer.

Tools for prevention:

Lifestyle Changes

Avoid multiple sexual partners, delaying first sexual intercourse, reducing tobacco use.

Since early detection predicts better prognosis, among the very best methods of preventing and controlling cervical cancer is regular screening by Pap Smear, VIA and early identification.


Screening by cervical cytology Pap smear (scrapings from the cervix) has lead to marked decrease in cervical cancer incidence. The test isn’t considered for women below the age of 25 years and over age 65 years. A 3-yearly examination is recommended for girls between the ages of 25 -49 years while for the age group between 50-64 years a Pap smear once in every 5 years is recommended.

HPV Vaccines

Prevention by vaccination is emerging as the best option. One of the several strains of HPV infection two breeds: HPV 16 and 18, accounts for more than 70% of all cancer cases worldwide. HPV vaccines that prevent against HPV 16 and 18 infection are now available and have the potential to decrease the incidence of cervical and other anogenital cancers.

The currently available vaccines are safe and efficacious. The protection is seen only when the vaccine is given before infection with HPV, the vaccine should be provided prior to sexual debut. The vaccine should preferably be introduced to parents as a cervical cancer preventing vaccine rather than as a vaccine against a sexually transmitted disease. The HPV vaccination is therefore of public health significance.

Two vaccines licensed worldwide are available in India; a quadrivalent vaccine (GardasilTM marketed by Merck) and a bivalent vaccine (CervarixTM promoted by GlaxoSmithKline). These vaccines do not protect against the serotype with which infection has already occurred before vaccination. The bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines available are prophylactic, not curative.

Prevention is better than cure. This expression does not seem to hold good for Indians as far as health care is concerned with only around 10 percent of adults opting for vaccines

Treatment of established cervical cancer

Cancer in very early stages could be removed surgically. In later stages, chemotherapy and radiation maybe used alone or after surgery

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