Preventative Measures

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Cervical cancer is the primary Reason for cancer-related deaths in developing countries

Gainesville Animal Removal, cervical cancer is the most common woman-related cancer, followed by breast cancer. About 122,844 new cervical cancer cases are diagnosed annually (estimations for 2012). It mostly affects middle-aged girls (between 40 and 55 years), especially those from the lower economic status who fail to perform regular health check-ups. The early stages of cervical cancer are asymptomatic, later stages may present with abnormal vaginal bleeding, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, lower back pain, bleeding and pain during urination or pain during intercourse. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is now a well-established cause of cervical cancer. At least 50% of sexually active men and women get HPV at some point in their lives that generally resolves spontaneously; however, only 3-10% of women develop chronic illnesses, and are at high risk of developing cervical cancer.

Tools for prevention:

Lifestyle Changes

Since early detection predicts better prognosis, among the very best methods of controlling and preventing cervical cancer is routine screening by Pap Smear, VIA and early identification.


Screening by cervical cytology Pap smear (scrapings from the cervix) has result in marked decrease in cervical cancer incidence. The test isn’t considered for women below age 25 years and over age 65 years. A 3-yearly examination is suggested for girls between the ages of 25 -49 years while for the age group between 50-64 years a Pap smear once in every 5 years is recommended. The issue with pap smear screening is its low compliance among Indian women.

HPV Vaccines

Prevention by vaccination is emerging as the best option. Among the several strains of HPV infection two breeds: HPV 16 and 18, accounts for at least 70% of all cancer cases worldwide. HPV vaccines that prevent against HPV 16 and 18 infection are now available and have the capacity to reduce the incidence of cervical and other anogenital cancers.

The currently available vaccines are safe and efficacious. The protection is seen only when the vaccine is given before infection with HPV, the vaccine should be provided before sexual debut. The vaccine should rather be introduced to parents as a cervical cancer preventing vaccine rather than as a vaccine against a sexually transmitted disease. The HPV vaccination is therefore of public health importance.

Two vaccines licensed globally are available in India; a quadrivalent vaccine (GardasilTM marketed by Merck) and a bivalent vaccine (CervarixTM promoted by GlaxoSmithKline). These vaccines do not protect against the serotype with which infection has already occurred before vaccination. The bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines available are prophylactic, not curative.

Prevention is far better than cure. This saying does not seem to hold good for Indians as far as healthcare is concerned with just around 10 percent of adults opting for vaccines

Treatment of established cervical cancer

Cancer in very early phases may be removed surgically. In later stages, radiation and chemotherapy possibly used alone or after surgery

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